Warsaw 1866-Sant’Ambrogio Olona 1938. Company director and banker, of Polish origin, naturalised Italian in 1912. Studied engineering in Ghent and Aachen, worked with the Russian Commercial Bank in Genoa in 1890. Hired by the Banca Commerciale in Milan, he became its deputy director, and in 1915 took the place of his cousin Otto Joel at the helm of the bank, which he left due to his German origins, which were incompatible with the nationalistic climate during the war. Managing director until 1933 (replaced by Raffaele Mattioli). His villa near Varese is now the university centre of Insubria.