Milan 1909-Rome 1944. Of a Jewish family, he graduated in Philosophy in Milan, in the Gruppi goliardici della libertà (with Basso and Morandi), then in Giustizia e Libertà (with Ginzburg and Foa). Literary and philosophical publications. In the anti-Fascist struggle from 1935. Director of the Centro Interno Socialista from 1937. Arrested in 1938, exiled to Ventotene (where he edited the Manifesto europeo with Spinelli and Rossi). Later exiled to Melfi. Head of a Matteotti brigade in 1943. Murdered by Fascists in Rome in 1944.