Milan 1801-Lugano 1869. A patriot, philosopher, essayist, federalist politician, leader of the Five Days of Milan in 1848. Republican MP in the first post-Unification Parliament. Many important and eclectic works, a mainstay of federalist ideas (La città considerata come principio ideale delle istorie italiane; Notizie naturali e civili su la Lombardia). Found refuge in Switzerland after ’48 and settled near Lugano.